(or Ibn Sina, Abu Ali Al-Husayn ) (980–1037)
Leading Islamic philosopher and Neoplatonist . Avicenna was born in Bukhara, and educated in literature, law, logic, and mathematics, as well as science and metaphysics. A child prodigy, by the age of sixteen he was an accomplished physician; however, although he read Aristotle's Metaphysics forty times, he claimed that it was not until he also absorbed Al-Farabi's On the Objects of Metaphysics that he finally understood it. The end of the Samanid dynasty in 999 saw the beginning of various wanderings and allegiances to different courts, and he eventually died in Isfahan. He wrote between one and two hundred works on diverse subjects, mostly in Arabic but also in Persian. His major philosophical work, The Healing, became known to medieval western philosophy through Al-Ghazali's summary, and through translations into Latin. Avicenna represents a Neoplatonic version of Aristotelianism, a strand of thought considered immensely influential on 13th century scholasticism, although eventually eclipsed by a less Augustinian, purer Aristotelianism filtered through his western Islamic counterpart, Averroës.
One of his arguments concerning the nature of the soul postulates a full-grown man suddenly coming into existence although suspended in empty space, with eyes covered and limbs separated. This ‘flying man’ would have no sensation, but nevertheless be aware of his being and his self. The argument anticipates the cogito of Descartes . Avicenna believed that being was an accident of essence, and that contingent beings require necessary causes sustaining their existence. This version of the cosmological argument was the one accepted by Aquinas . It is in the theological domain, where he espouses doctrines of creation as a kind of emanation, and of celestial substances as kinds of intelligence, that Neoplatonism surfaces in his work.

Philosophy dictionary. . 2011.

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  • AVICENNA° — AVICENNA°, as he is known in the West, or Abu Ali al Hussein ibn ʿAbdallah ibn Sīnā (980–1037), physician, scientist, statesman, and one of the greatest Islamic philosophers. His writings cover a wide range of topics. His encyclopedic work Kitāb… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Avicenna — nach einer Handschrift von 1271 Abū Alī al Husayn ibn Abdullāh ibn Sīnā, latinisiert Avicenna (persisch ‏ابو علی سینا‎ – Abū ʿAlī Sīnā; arabisch ‏ابن سينا‎ ibn Sīnā; * 980 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Avicenna — • Arabian physician and philosopher, born at Kharmaithen, in the province of Bokhara, 980; died at Hamadan, in Northern Persia, 1037 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Avicenna     Avicenna …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Avicenna — (eigentlich Abu Ali el Hussein Ebn Abd Allah Ebn Sina), geb. 980 n.Chr. zu Afschana in Bukhara, übte schon im 16. Jahre die Arzneikunde, ward nach langen Reisen Leibarzt des Khalifen von Rei, zuletzt Vezier zu Hamadan u. st. hier 1036. In seinem… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Avicenna — (eigentlich Ibn Sîna), berühmter arab. Arzt und Philosoph, geb. 980 zu Asschena in der Nähe von Bochara, gest. 1037 in Hamadan, erhielt in Bochara seine gelehrte Bildung, wurde Leibarzt bei dem letzten samanidischen und mehreren dilemitischen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Avicénna — Avicénna, Ibn Sina, arab. Philosoph und Arzt, geb. 980 zu Efschene in Buchara, gest. 1037 in Hamadan; seine im »Kânûn« gesammelten mediz. Schriften wurden in der mittelalterlichen europ. Wissenschaft als Grundwerke anerkannt; außerdem verfaßte er …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Avicenna — (eigentl. Ibn Sina), geb. 980 zu Afschema bei Bokhara, gest. 1037, verfaßte eine Encyklopädie aller bei den Arabern gepflegten Wissenschaften. Als Mathematiker hat er auf die Vereinfachung der Arithmetik hingewirkt, als Arzt war er für die… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Avicenna — Latinization of name of Ibn Sina (980 1037), Persian philosopher and physician. Full name AbЕ« ‘AlД« al Husayn ibn ‘Abd AllДЃh ibn SД«nДЃ al BalkhД« …   Etymology dictionary

  • Avicenna — [av΄i sen′ə] (Ar. ībn sīnā) 980 1037; Arab physician & philosopher in Persia …   English World dictionary

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  • Avicenna — /av euh sen euh/, n. A.D. 980 1037, Islamic physician and philosopher, born in Persia. * * * Arabic Ibn Sīnā in full Abū ʾAlī al Ḥusayn ibn ʽAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā born 980, Bukhara, Iran died 1037, Hamadan Islamic philosopher and scientist. He… …   Universalium

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